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Heavy, low gravity oils are dark brown, green, or black in color and have dull yellow or brown fluorescence. Permeability is governed by porosity and cementation, and is also relatively easy to estimate visually in a qualitative sense. If the blender gas analysis test is performed, then this test also provides a guide to the permeability of the rock. These may be sandstones, siltstones, or, worst of all, soft, wet clays. However, some viscosifiers e.

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For example, diesel oil has a yellow-gold stain, but negligible dull brown fluorescence. Note that complex combinations of these can characterize a single reservoir.

Work is dominated by where the gas and oil is and, unfortunately, that is often in incredibly remote locations. If low permeability exists, solvent fluorescence will be bright, but unevenly distributed, spreading out from the cutting in swirls or streams.

Cavings The most common form of contamination is cavings-material that has collapsed or sloughed from the borehole wall. Both these voids and fractures are often marked by solution pitting, striations, or, alternatively, by secondary mineralization, infill, or mineral staining. This can be confirmed by repeating the cut test on cuttings that have been treated with hot water. Comparison of the oil stain color with its fluorescence will confirm the type of crude oil present, or indicate the presence of a contaminant.

Oil-based drilling fluids may also cause problems in evaluating hydrocarbon-bearing intervals. The most common of these are calcite and pyrite. These clays become further hydrated by the drilling fluid, reaching a semifluid state in which they swell viscously into the borehole. Lime-stones and dolomite rocks commonly result from the recrystallization of marine carbonates.

Any fresh oil in cuttings must be judged against this background, which may be impossible if the oil in the cuttings has a similar fluorescence color to that already present in the drilling fluid. This will result in a routine background oil fluorescence in drilling fluid and unwashed cuttings. The volume of pore space created by such structures is on a scale too large, or too irregularly distributed, to be reliably estimated from well cuttings.

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Low density, high gravity oils are light yellow to gold in color and have bright gold, white, or blue-white fluorescence. Mineral fluorescence tends to be less intense but more uniformly distributed than oil fluorescence. However, some cavings may produce fragments small enough to pass through the sieve.

Take our Career Test Go Jobs. Although, ideally, they are nonfluorescent, the oils used to prepare such fluids may, over a period of time, deteriorate. There is no solution to this problem other than improved instruction and supervision of drilling crews. Crude oil will fluoresce with a color and intensity characteristic of its density. Drillpipe thread grease pipe dope is heavy and has a dark brown or black natural color, but extremely bright, blue-white fluorescence color.

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Sample processing and microscopic examination should be followed by a systematic oil evaluation procedure. Evaluated and Interpreted rock cuttings andfield samples to determine presence and composition of natural resource reserves. One way to avoid recycled solids would be not to catch samples at the desander or desilter, but this would not be good practice. In this case, hook up instagram only after disintegration in the blender will the sample release the entrapped gas. Hydrocarbon Evaluation Inspection for oil should begin with the unwashed sample.

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In addition to oil, there are some minerals that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. They study and analyse rocks from the oil and gas wells in order to direct the drilling, and identify the rock formation into which they are drilling. Secondary porosity is commonly diagenetic in origin and on a large scale relative to the size of cuttings or even cores.

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